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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 3: Cellular mechanism of volatile anesthetic preconditioning. ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels), phospholipase C (PLC), adenosine A1 and A3 (A1/A3), nitric oxide synthase (NOS). B2, bradykinin2 receptors; DAG, diacylglycerol; Gi protein, inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding proteins; IP3, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinases; NO, nitric oxide; PIP2, phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate; PKC, protein kinase C; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SR, sarcoplasmic reticulum; α1, α1-adrenergic receptor; β, β-adrenergic receptor; δ1, δ1-opioid receptor 53.

Figure 3: Cellular mechanism of volatile anesthetic preconditioning. ATP-sensitive K+ channels (K<sub>ATP</sub> channels), phospholipase C (PLC), adenosine A1 and A3 (A1/A3), nitric oxide synthase (NOS). B2, bradykinin2 receptors; DAG, diacylglycerol; Gi protein, inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding proteins; IP3, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinases; NO, nitric oxide; PIP2, phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate; PKC, protein kinase C; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SR, sarcoplasmic reticulum; α1, α1-adrenergic receptor; β, β-adrenergic receptor; δ1, δ1-opioid receptor 53.